The Digital Video Advertising Landscape

Changing consumer behavior and technological advances in content delivery have resulted in a new media landscape, one where the lines between TV and video are increasingly blurred. This TV-video-shift is prompting the marketplace to rethink definitions and approaches to video advertising.

In order to understand digital video and its many benefits, we must seek to understand its complex and ever-shifting ecosystem. This section outlines how all these moving parts interact, including branding opportunities, the planning processes, pricing models, and creative decisions required to ensure high quality consumer experiences.

Across video platforms, new opportunities to reach and engage consumers come in many shapes and forms. The term video is perceived through varying yet overlapping frameworks and lenses. Brands and marketers utilize these options to better connect and engage with consumers.

Mapping the Ecosystem 

From start to finish, buying and selling digital video involves a number of steps—often dependent on multiple vendors—to ensure a high quality video asset makes it through the entire lifecycle of a video ad and with all usage rights in order. So, what are these different components and who are the key participants throughout the lifecycle of a campaign?

Publishers: Organizations with owned or curated media who sell inventory on their websites and/or apps.

Publisher Networks: Organizations that aggregate advertising space but don’t necessarily own them.

Agencies: A service business dedicated to planning, creating, and handling advertising for its clients. An ad agency is independent from the client and provides an outside point of view to the effort of selling the client’s products or services.

Trading Desks: A centralized agency team or organization that provides a managed service layer, typically on top of a licensed demand-side platform (DSP) and other audience buying technologies. This group typically manages automated, bid-based media, and audience buying on behalf of their advertiser clients.

Brands: The company or product being advertised.

Demand-Side Platform (DSP): Software used by buyers to access and decision against publisher inventory. Other functions usually include bundled bidding algorithms / optimization techniques, third-and first-party data integrations, tagging and attribution functionality, and media delivery reporting. 

Sell-Side Platform (SSP): Software used by publishers to aggregate, consolidate, and manage available demand sources and exchange inventory. Sometimes includes ad serving functionality.

Data Management Platform (DMP): Technology service that allows participants/operators to aggregate and normalize disparate data sets for advanced campaign analytics/reporting as well as segmentation and targeting.

Advertiser Ad Server: Technology that provides centralized storage, tracking, and delivery of media campaign assets.

Publisher Ad Server: Software to manage advertiser creative tags and delivery priority amongst many advertisers.

Measurement Vendors: Companies that measure a range of metrics valuable to advertisers and publishers, including but not limited to, measuring for viewability, online or offline sales, and brand awareness.

Verification Vendors: Third-party technology companies intended to measure target delivery, viewability, brand safety, and fraud.

Creative Vendors: Third-party vendors who offer their creative skills, consulting, and products. These fall into two buckets. 1) (as you have it written) and 2) vendors that manage and deliver the creative assets, including quality control and rights management.

IAB offers a Digital Fundamentals class—available as an in-person class and as an online learning curriculum—that provides learners with a comprehensive introduction to the digital advertising ecosystem. 

The Media Buying Process 

The media planning process involves selecting where to advertise and when to use specific media vehicles (the right timing) to deliver a message, to reach and engage a target audience.

Within the brand’s budget constraints, the media planning process includes: determining the media objectives and establishing communications goals, developing a media strategy and tactics to enable the media objectives, and determining how to measure the effectiveness of the media plan.

Key Pre-Planning Considerations

  • What objectives do you have for your campaign?
  • Are there specific measurement goals that are important to meet?
  • What is your budget?
  • Do you need to utilize a third-party vendor to perform measurement?
  • In thinking about the audience you’re trying to reach, which targeting parameters will be most important? Age, Gender, Behavioral Targeting Segment, Re-Targeting Segment, Household/Purchase Targeting Segment, Country, Designated Market Area (DMA), Time Zone?
  • What’s the most relevant inventory medium or media mix given the target audience? Desktop, Mobile, Connected TV, Inventory Source, Contextual Category, Genre?

These key considerations will help define the scope of the campaign and determine measures of success, a.k.a. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). KPIs are measurable performance metrics that allow marketers and agencies to work towards a common goal. A campaign can be sold against a number of KPIs. In TV, the most common KPIs are achieving a certain Gross Rating Point (GRP)[10], reach[11], or frequency[12]. In digital video advertising, the abundance of data allows campaigns to measure a wider variety of KPIs, including a specific target audience, verified ratings delivery, viewability rates, and/or other criteria. Brand advertisers also require brand and sales metrics such as brand awareness, brand consideration, and offline sales to be available to them.

Planning and Targeting 

After determining the campaign success metrics, budget, and desired outcomes, the next steps are defining the target audience to reach, the creative formats and media/channels to utilize. The audience will be based on the desired outcome of the campaign. For example, an automotive advertiser may be trying to incite higher in-dealer test drives for their newest car model. For them the target audience could be families in suburban areas that have owned the brand in the past.

The purchase funnel, or purchasing funnel, is a consumer focused marketing model which illustrates the theoretical customer journey towards the purchase of a product or service. Digital video is used throughout the purchase funnel as a branding mechanism, driving awareness, brand familiarity, consideration, through interactive capabilities and calls to action to purchase.

Media mix modelling can be used in strategic planning to determine which platforms, publishers, and formats to use. Some useful questions to ask at this stage include:

Is the campaign focused on driving brand awareness, direct response (i.e. purchase), or loyalty?

Should we use a combination of display, video, and mobile ads?

Next step is adding targeting parameters to better reach the desired audience. In contrast to TV where demographics (age and gender) are the most commonly used targeting parameters, digital video advertising allows additional targeting types, including:

  • Behavioral Targeting: Targeting based on user behavior typically from third-party data providers, or information collected from owned and operated properties. This data could include user purchase history and intent, general interest, web navigation history, and customer relationship management information

  • Geographic Targeting: Targeting limiting the delivery of a campaign to specified countries, states, postal codes or DMAs (Designated Market Areas)

  • Daypart Targeting: Limiting ad delivery to specific time frames when the target audience is expected to be most receptive. For example, you can set the ad to run only in the evening or only on weekdays

  • Contextual Targeting: Targeting to inventory based on the content of the page on which the ad is running

  • Technology Targeting: Targeting based on the technology the user is utilizing to access the content, such as Browser, Operating System (OS), Device, and more

Inventory Buying

After defining KPIs, audience, and targeting criteria for the ad campaign, the next step might be the development of specific media tactics. This is separated from the task of media planning and traditionally is the responsibility of the media buyer. Media buyers select the media vehicles and inventory needed to execute the media strategy. Their key considerations include which media properties will give them the reach and frequency (considering quantitative measures such as audience duplication and cost) to develop an optimal “media mix” inventory plan to fulfill the campaign.

Depending on the platform utilized, agencies/DSPs may be able to select inventory offered by a publisher, which may be an entire website/web property or mobile apps or particular ad locations within a website or mobile app. In addition to managing inventory, domain-level whitelists and blacklists may be applied to campaigns. Whitelists (generally more restrictive) declare the campaign may run only on the listed domains, whereas blacklists declare a campaign may not run on the listed domains. While possible, it’s not advisable to select both a whitelist and blacklist, as that would overly restrict targeting options.


At this stage, forecasting is important to ensure full delivery of the campaign. Forecasting is the ability to calculate in advance how much inventory you’ll need, through the combination of reach and frequency, to deliver against the desired KPIs. Historical campaign data, available inventory, and targeting parameters help determine spend amount and specific price points at various volumes. The ability to forecast against specific audience segments enables automated audience buying. This is complex because it doesn’t simply require connecting the right pipes or hooking up publishers’ backends with DSP platforms. It requires anticipating available inventory with certain specific audience characteristics beyond age and gender at a certain time. This isn’t an easy task and few technology partners can accomplish this precisely, particularly in video where supply is limited. 

Campaign Launch and Delivery

Launching and delivering a campaign requires an IO, sourcing the right creative and trafficking the media. 

IO Approval: Insertion order (IO) is generated and approved as a commitment from an advertiser to run the campaign.

Sourcing Creative Assets: Typically, the video plan requires assets in many different formats and specifications. The activation team also has to get confirmation that the rights are in place for all placements on the media plan.

Traffic Media: The trafficking process starts after the planning and creation phase, and assumes that you have the required video/companion assets and tracking tags.

Once a campaign has been set up in the system, the IO approved by buyer and seller, and creative assets trafficked, it is ready for launch. Once launched, an account manager or delivery manager will monitor the campaign closely to ensure there aren’t any setup mistakes.


Campaign effectiveness is critical to campaign optimization. In some cases, advertisers can get daily reporting on the health of their campaign, and can see how the campaign is performing against their KPIs. The data gleaned from these reports can provide insight into potential adjustments.

Campaign reporting can normally be customized to meet the end-client’s needs, but typical metrics reported may include:

Brand Awareness: How many of the target audience have become aware of the brand post- campaign?

Purchase Intent: How many of the target audience purchased the brand or product as a result of the media campaign?

Additional video metrics may include: click-through rate (CTR), video completion rate, video view- through rate (VTR), quartile analysis, creative type, creative length, video starts, video view count, average view rate, average view time, and conversion rate.

Examples of additional studies and advanced reporting include:

  • Real-time brand metrics that can be used to measure specific campaign objectives to include message recall, awareness, purchase intent and brand favorability through a control/exposure survey-based approach

  • Insights showing both TV & Digital ad exposure as well as the brand’s customers TV viewing behavior

  • Audience verification reports that use verified demographic data to identify audiences exposed to an online ad campaign

  • Online and offline sales studies that rely on different methods to track how the video campaign ties back to sales

  • Viewability and invalid or fraudulent traffic analysis and verification

In 2016, IAB established the Digital Media Buying & Planning Certification exam to set an industry benchmark for digital media planning and buying competency. One to two years of digital media planning and/or buying experience is required to be eligible for certification. IAB also offers preparatory classes supporting this exam.

Campaign Optimization and Path to Conversion
How does it all come together?

Using information from the current campaign (such as how it’s pacing against the delivery plan, forecast and KPIs) the technology partner can optimize and re-adjust the campaign to achieve the desired outcome. This ongoing feedback loop is a part of every campaign.

To optimize against advertiser goals, the platform needs to be capable of processing billions of events, dynamically combining first-, second- and third-party user data in real-time. A comprehensive DSP can also self-learn, improve, and continuously optimize against brand KPIs, thereby delivering the best outcomes.

Video campaigns, just as with any other medium, are evaluated by their effectiveness through a path to conversion or an increase in brand awareness, depending on the campaign’s overall goal. Simply put, this is the process of evaluating a sequence of events that will help to infer behavioral scenarios that are likely to produce the end goal. This analysis can then inform future planning or in-flight optimization between channels, audiences, or creative messaging.

To find out more about attribution, path to conversion and incrementalism of impression delivery, please reference IAB’s attribution primer.

Digital Video Ad Formats 

Digital video ads can be broken down into two different formats: linear and nonlinear. Either format may include a “companion” ad that displays outside the player.[13]

Linear video ads are ads that are sandwiched between segments of streaming video content much like a TV commercial. They can play before (pre-roll), during (mid-roll), or after (post-roll) the streaming content. Linear ad formats can be accompanied by a companion ad or they can include an interactive component such as branded components of the video player (i.e. logos within the control bar, progress bar, etc.) 

Non-linear video ads are typically served as images that “overlay” the video content. The ad runs concurrently with the streaming content so the user sees the ad while also viewing the content without interruption. Ideally, the non-linear video ad is small enough to allow a relatively unobstructed view of the content. Non-linear video ads can be delivered as text, static images, interactive rich media, or as video overlays. Typically, a non-linear video ad developer can take advantage of the medium and use the small overlay as an invitation for consumers to further engage with a more robust set of interactions. As with linear ads, nonlinear ads can be served with companion ads. 

Companion ads are served along with linear or nonlinear ads in the form of text, static image display ads, rich media, or skins that wrap around the video experience. These ads come in a number of sizes and shapes and typically run alongside (or surrounding) the video player. The primary purpose of the companion ad is to offer sustained visibility of the sponsor throughout the streaming video experience. Digital video companion ads are always served with a master ad, which is either the linear or nonlinear ad. 

Digital Video Ad Units 

There are two primary types of ad units: in-stream & out-stream. 

  • In-stream video ads are played before (pre-roll), during (mid-roll), or after (post-roll) the streaming video content that the consumer has requested. In-stream video ads are displayed within the context of streaming video, frequently used to monetize the video content that the publisher is delivering, and can be played inside short-form or long-form video. Users typically cannot stop in-stream ads from being played, particularly with pre-roll. There are three different types of video content where in-stream may play: journalistic (i.e. news content); syndicated (i.e. distributed content); and user-generated content.

  • Out-stream video ads is video advertising that takes place outside of in-stream video content. The key difference between in-stream and out-stream video ads is that out-stream video ads leverage the existence of standard display ad units to deliver a video experience. For example, a site visitor may view an article on a news website and a muted, auto-play video ad may load in a standard display ad unit.

    Out-stream video ads are not the primary focus of the page and typically not rendered in a prominent video player. The visitor did not visit the page with the intent to view a video nor did they actively initiate the experience. 

The out-stream definition includes:
  • In-banner video is a video clip within a web banner that leverages the banner space to deliver a video experience as opposed to another static or rich media format. The format relies on the existence of display ad inventory on the page to be delivered.

  • In-article video ads load dynamically between paragraphs of editorial content when a user scrolls through the page, playing video when the ad unit is in view.

  • Native videos are promoted videos within one of the six IAB native core ads[14] (i.e. in-feed unit, paid search unit, recommendation widget, promoted listing, in-ad with native elements, or custom). Native videos include a headline, description, and context for the ad.

  • In-feed videos are native video ads found in content, social, or product feeds, often paired with a headline, description, and logo.

  • Interstitial video are ads that appear between two content pages. Also known as transition
    ads, inter-commercial ads, and splash pages. Other terms such as in-page, mobile pre-roll, and incentivized videos appear in the context of mobile interstitials or ads that have 100% share of voice/screen.

Digital Video Content Types 

Inventory opportunities are expanding as a result of the growing number of screens, devices, and platforms. Video content types range from long-form, which IAB glossary defines as typically more than 10 minutes, and short-form, typically less than 10 minutes. Full Episode Players (FEP) haven’t yet been defined by IAB, but as described by ABC provide schedule-free viewing of premium, full-length shows. User-generated content (UGC) is defined as any form of content such as blogs, posts, chats, tweets, podcasts, digital images, video, audio files, advertisements and other forms of media that are created by users (i.e. not professionally produced). Most of these videos are found on YouTube.

Online Video Platforms (OLV) 

IAB defines video platforms as those environments in which video content is shown or streamed, including desktop, mobile devices, tablets, Over-The-Top (OTT) devices, and Advanced TV. As technology advances, we can expect to see more new devices and ways of consuming content entering the marketplace. One example of this is shaping up in Digital Out-of-Home (DOOH) media. From large, digital billboard-style formats to screens in taxis, elevators, and gyms, we are seeing digital video content and ads, discovered and consumed in unique formats, reaching consumers in locations they frequent most.

Visit IAB DOOH Committee page for additional Digital Out-of-Home resources for buyers and publishers alike.

Digital Video Creative Decisions 

In addition to the steps outlined above, there are creative decisions required to achieve a campaign’s desired result. These include (beyond the duration of the campaign itself) the duration of the advertisement, frequency and sequencing, as well as the campaign’s interactive elements.


The duration of the ad will depend on the target audience, and the device on which it will be shown. Several studies (including the IAB Multiscreen Video Best Practices report) indicate that the ideal ad length can vary by generation and screen. Ten-second videos for instance can help maximize impact among millennials and multiscreen videos should be branded with smaller mobile screen sizes in mind.

Frequency & Sequencing

Frequency and sequencing will also depend on the campaign’s target audience, budget constraints and the campaign’s media mix modelling. The effective frequency is the number of times a person must be exposed to an advertising message before a response is made and before additional exposure is considered wasteful. The subject of effective frequency is quite controversial. In digital advertising context, ad sequencing refers to scheduling a particular and ordered ad sequence made of different creatives; should the ad be shown during primetime and have burst during the weekend, or should it be shown in specific times during the day?

Interactive Elements

Interactive elements that can be used in video ads, and are generally executed with a VPAID tag that allows for interactivity with the user. There are various forms of interactivity: a campaign can be set to have personalized assets—if the user’s locale is New York, it can present the user with relevant financing options for New York as opposed to Los Angeles. Social icons can also be utilized to make video sharable, and an “add to calendar” feature can work well for movie releases. If the brand is trying to drive in-store car testing, they could add an interactive form to be completed by the user prior to going to the showroom.

These are only some of the interactive elements used in video campaigns. To explore additional examples of interactive and cross-platform creative executions, please visit the IAB Cross-Platform Creative Showcase

What Makes for Quality Digital Video Creative? 

Some of the most often shared content is video advertising. The 2016 Rio Paralympics trailer “We’re the Superhuman?” is a great example. The three-minute video was viewed over eight million times on YouTube, and now has over 1.8 million shares across social media. It’s proof that great content works— even when it’s advertising.

So what can advertisers do to garner more views and shares? For starters: Do not just repurpose the same TV commercial on every platform!

It may seem as though this option is a money saver, but it will inevitably cost more in terms of negative brand perception—for instance, when a 60-second ad designed for a TV screen is served to a user on a mobile device. Traditional TV and digital video environments are profoundly different. TV viewers are used to lean-back experiences; digital consumers are typically more lean-forward, short-term task focused and susceptible to clicking away at a moment’s notice. Mobile consumers have also grown accustomed to content that has been meticulously tailored to their tastes, and they expect advertising to be no less relevant and personalized. While in some cases repetition may improve recall, too much frequency on any platform can cause annoyance among consumers. A good way to ensure a better consumer experience is to shoot video ad creative from the outset in different aspect ratios (9:16 and 16:9) with story lines of different lengths so as to better match the ad to every platform on which it will be viewed (i.e. vertical video ads for mobile app platforms such as Snapchat and Instagram). 

Considering the digital video viewers’ experience is vital. Think critically about audience and the platform the ad will appear on, and use targeting to send messages tailored to unique groups in the campaign. With video viewability (the opportunity to see a video ad) defined as a video advertisement playing for two continuous seconds with half of the ad’s pixels in focus in the browser, advertisers need to hook their audiences quickly. Additionally, with the power of the internet at viewers’ fingertips, marketers are advised to offer a strong, concise call-to-action or message that the video viewer can act upon or remember. Interaction points can include a “click-to-call” to learn more about the brand, the option to fill out a post-video form or end card, to request a test drive for a new car, or to download a coupon for a discount.

Many platforms will offer the ability to run dynamic creative—in other words, the ability to allow advertisers to schedule slightly modified ads as the timeline of the campaign progresses. Be sure to take advantage of this capability. While some platforms offer advertisers the ability to run short creative, other brands are responding with longer creative. Though challenges can arise from placing and promoting long form video ads, the payoff—if done correctly—can lead to increased attention, earned media, and even virality. In the end, people respond to ads that challenge their expectations, pull at their heart strings, and show them something they’ve never seen before.

Finally, if you want humans to respond to your message, be sure your message sounds human. Internet users have spent the last 20 years overwhelmed with offers and messages, and will often quickly tune out messages that are executed poorly, or are just irrelevant to them. Targeting and personalization will be the name of the game—delivering fewer ads, to the right people, at the right time.

Location-based advertising, campaigns enhanced by location data and/or utilizing location-based ad targeting capabilities, can deliver more meaningful ad experiences and increased return on investment (ROI) when used effectively. Marketers can, through the use of location data, gain insights into their target audiences enabling them to develop proximity-specific campaigns such as serving a localized version of video ad to in-market auto intenders.

To learn more about location-based marketing strategies, see the IAB Mobile Location Playbook. To get involved with the IAB Local Advertising Committee and related location working groups, please email [email protected].

Video Pricing Models 

The most common video pricing models in the digital video landscape today include:

  • CPM: Cost per thousand impressions, calculated as CPM = Total Cost / Total Impressions x 1000. For example, a website that charges $1,500 per ad and reports 100,000 impressions has a CPM of $15.

  • CPCV: Cost per completed view. Pricing model in which the advertiser pays for every time a video ad runs through to completion, calculated as CPCV = Total Cost / Completed Views. Rather than paying for all views, some of which may have been stopped before completion, an advertiser only pays for ads that finished playing.

  • CPV: Cost per view. Pricing model in which the advertiser pays for every time a video ad starts (each start is counted as a view), calculated as CPV = Total Cost / Total Views.

  • VCPM: Viewable cost per thousand. Pricing model in which the advertiser pays based on the cost of 1,000 viewable impressions, calculated as VCPM = Total Cost / Total Viewable Impressions x 1000. A viewable impression refers to an opportunity to view an ad for more than two seconds.

  • VCPV: Viewable cost per view. Pricing model in which costs, views, and viewability are all taken into account to determine what the advertiser pays. Calculated as VCPV = VCPM / CPV where “view” usually means a completed view.

  • CPAOT: Cost per audience on target

  • CPE/CPI: Cost per engagement/cost per interaction. Pricing model in which the advertiser pays for every time a user actively engages—or interacts—with an ad. For example, when a user hovers over a lightbox ad to expand it, that’s an engagement/interaction.

  • Time-Based Pricing: CPH (cost per hour) and CPS (cost per second) are pricing models in which the advertiser is guaranteed a minimum exposure time for their viewable impressions and then charged based on how much time 1000 impressions create. Read more about how the Financial Times implemented this measurement.

As the business model for video is so dependent on views, marketers should be aware that the definition of a view can vary depending on the platform (i.e. Facebook vs. Snap Inc. vs. YouTube).[15]

1: The Nielsen Company, Monitor Plus (Standard Calendar, Total includes B2B, National Internet (Display only), FSI Coupons), Oct. 2016
2: IAB/PwC 2016 Internet Advertising Revenue Report
3: To view the Top 10 Video Content Properties by Unique Viewers, see comScore’s monthly release of their Video metrix data.
4: Business Insider: “The US Digital Media Ad Revenue Report: The path to $100 billion in annual revenue by 2021.”
5: IAB/PwC 2016 Ad Revenue Report
6: Business Insider: “5 video advertising trends that will change your business.”
7: PwC: “2017-2021 Global Entertainment and Media Outlook.”
8: Forrester Research, 2016
9: Pathak, S. (2017). “Why digital advertising is experimenting with blockchain.” Digiday, 4 Apr 2017
10: Gross Rating Point: Measured by the % of households that tune into to a particular show or network and have the opportunity to see an ad.
11: Reach: Represents the total number of people exposed to the media plan or ad over a certain time period, based on the total size of the target audience.
12: Frequency: Is a measure of media repetition.
13: IAB’s Digital Video In-Stream Ad Format Guideline.
14: IAB Deep-Dive on In-Feed Ad Units: A Supplement to the IAB Native Advertising Playbook
15: Herrmann, J. & Isaac, M. (2016). “The Online Video View: We Can Count It, but Can We Count on It?” The New York Times, 2 Oct 2016
16: Cloud Servers: A cloud server is a logical server that is built, hosted and delivered through a cloud computing platform over the internet. Cloud servers possess and exhibit similar capabilities and functionality to a typical server but are accessed remotely from a cloud service provider.
17: Syndication is a term that is used in both print and broadcast media. It indicates content that for instance is purchased for use by a local newspaper, TV, or radio station. It is not produced by the media company’s owner but through an outside source.
18: XML: Extensible Markup Language (XML) defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human/machine-readable
19: CSS: is the language for describing the presentation of Web pages, including colors, layout, and fonts. It allows one to adapt the presentation to different types of devices, such as large screens, small screens, or printers. CSS is independent of HTML and can be used with any XML-based markup language
20: Audience segments are subsets of user data signifying specific facts, interests and other attributes. Audience segments, and the techniques
21: URI is a string of characters used to identify a resource. Such identification enables interaction with representations of the resource over a network using specific protocols. Schemes specifying a concrete syntax and associated protocols define each URI. The most common form of URI is the Uniform Resource Locator (URL), frequently referred to informally as a web address.
22: Making Measurement Make Sense (3MS) is a cross-industry initiative founded by the American Association of Advertising Agencies (4A’s), the Association of National Advertisers (ANA), and Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB). The Media Rating Council (MRC), an independent body, is responsible for setting and implementing measurement standards.
23: IAS 2016 year-end survey results
24: An “affiliate” is an entity that controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with another entity. Control of an entity means that one entity (1) has significant common ownership or operational control over the other, or (2) can exercise a controlling influence over the management or policies of the other entity. In addition, for an entity to be under the control of another—and thus be treated as first party under these entity’s policies.Principles—that entity must adhere to online behavioral advertising policies that are not materially inconsistent with the other
25: Deloitte. “2015 Global Mobile Consumer Survey: US Edition. The rise of the always-connected consumer.”
26: Mobile Spearheads Digital Video Advertising’s Growth.” eMarketer, 22 Feb 2016.
27: comScore Inc., Nielsen, and ZenithOptimedia
28: Nielsen Q2 2016 Comparable Metrics report.
29: Q2 2016 Comparable Metrics report.
30: AARP.
31: Nielsen Q2 2016 Comparable Metrics report.
32: Mobile Spearheads Digital Video Advertising’s Growth.
33: ANA reports 7.2B lost in Ad fraud
34: Snapchat internal data
35: The continued evolution of enhanced mobile experiences that overlay digital information on top of the physical world
36: Duffy, F. (2017). “Turner Takes on eSports in a Big Way.” NCTA Platform, 6 Jan 2017.
37: The waterfall model is a sequential process in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the various phases, in this case, the potential demand sources or buyers
38: IAB Programmatic Revenue Report 2014 Results. July 2015
39: IAB Transparency is the Key to Programmatic Success
40: WTF is header bidding?
41: Thomvest ventures
42: Programmatic TV definition per IDC
43: Lotame Bridge the TV ad gap & PWC Media forecast 2015, agency reports, front row advisory analysis
44: eMarketer More OTT Time Means More Ad Time
45: eMarketer’s Connected TV and Over-the-Top Video: The Living Room’s Place in the US Digital Video Ecosystem report.
46: Frank N. Magid Associates study
47: comScore 2016 U.S. Cross Platform Future in Focus report.
48: Nielsen’s first-quarter 2016 Total Audience Report.
49: Adobe U.S. Digital Video Benchmark 2Q15; adobe primetime; TV connected devices=apple TV, Roku, gaming console, amazon fire TV,smart TV, other
50: Based on 2016 total viewers Broadcast - Source: Nielsen. Prime time total viewers, Live+7; Broadcast data: 12/28/15-12/4/16
51: Based on 2016 total viewers Cable - Source: Nielsen; Live+SD numbers from 12/28/2015-12/18/2016
52: Based on 2016 TV household coverage. Networks supplied coverage percentages, except for Create TV, which came from Across Platforms consltancy
53: IDC
54: Video Landscape Report
55: IAB TV 20/20 Webinar, 2016. Videology % estimates from Nielsen, eMarketer trend data; Time spent data calculated by Videology from Nielsen and KPCB data. Highest rated programs based on Nielsen A18-49 Live+7 data.
56: “2016 U.S. Cross-Platform Future in Focus,” comScore
57: IAB Digital Video Landscape report
58: Any Given Minute Comparable Metrics Report, VAB 2016
59: IAB: The Programmatic Supply Chain: Deconstructing the Anatomy of a Programmatic CPM)
60: Ghostery, Inc. Interview with Ghostery CEO Scott Meyer. IAB Annual Leadership Conference. January 26, 2016.
61: IAB/EY Study released on Dec-15. Estimates are for the U.S. Market only. Industry-wide collaboration under the auspices of TAG is needed in order to forestall these criminal activities